‘No Income, Temporary Visa, and Too Many Triggers’: Barriers in accommodating survivors of human trafficking and slavery in Australia


  • Kyla Raby
  • Dr Nerida Chazal
  • Lina Garcia-Daza
  • Ginta Mebalds




human trafficking, modern slavery, survivors, housing insecurity, immigration status, income, Australia


Access to stable housing has a significant effect on the wellbeing of survivors of human trafficking and modern slavery. Safe and sustainable accommodation provides a crucial foundation for survivors beginning their recovery; however, it is often very difficult to source for support services assisting them. This paper presents the findings of research that analysed the eligibility, suitability, availability, and accessibility of short-term accommodation and long-term housing options to better understand the barriers to accommodating survivors in Australia. It demonstrates that survivors were not eligible for many options due to their immigration status or lack of income. Within the limited options, there is a shortage of suitable accommodation due to the absence of survivor-specific services, and due to rules and requirements imposed by accommodation providers that are not supportive of survivors’ unique needs. These include restrictions on survivors’ freedom of movement, on the use of alcohol and other drugs, and on accommodating men, children, and extended family, as well as requirements related to engaging in activities. These barriers negatively impact survivors’ recovery and may lead to homelessness whilst increasing the risk of re-trafficking or other harm. Collaboration and coordination between actors within anti-slavery and housing policy spheres is urgently required to mitigate these barriers and prevent such harms.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Kyla Raby

Kyla Raby is an anti-slavery researcher and practitioner, currently undertaking her PhD at the University of South Australia (UniSA). She is involved in various research projects related to human trafficking and slavery.

Dr Nerida Chazal

Dr Nerida Chazal is a Lecturer in Criminology and Sociology at UniSA. Her research specialities include gender violence, human trafficking, forced marriage, and international criminal justice.

Lina Garcia-Daza

Lina Garcia-Daza is the Acting Lead for Trafficking, Forced Marriage, and Forced Labour at the Australian Red Cross. She has over a decade of experience working with human rights and international humanitarian law.

Ginta Mebalds

Ginta Mebalds is the Manager of Protection at the Australian Red Cross. She has worked in the field of migration for over a decade, in programmes supporting and advocating for the human rights, basic needs, and dignity of migrants in transition.




How to Cite

Raby, K., Chazal, N., Garcia-Daza, L., & Mebalds, G. (2023). ‘No Income, Temporary Visa, and Too Many Triggers’: Barriers in accommodating survivors of human trafficking and slavery in Australia. Anti-Trafficking Review, (20), 92–110. https://doi.org/10.14197/atr.201223206